A marquee usually refers to the high peak in a Hexagon frame tent. They feature a design with a "flying centre pole" to create the distinctive design lines for this party tent.
A canopy can have the same design top but usually they do not have side walls so it is just a cover over your party.
Pole tents use tall center poles and perimeter ropes to tighten the tent fabric into place to create the roof. These tents are normally much larger and are designed to give a larger party area. These are popular for weddings and banquets or festivals.
Clearspan structures are large span "temporary" buildings that you might see at sporting events and commercial projects. They are supported by steel truss arches that require a crane to lift into place for installation.
You can usually refer to any of these structures simply as a tent but there are differences in what they do, how they look and in what manner the fabric roof is supported.